If this is too confusing, read an introduction instead.
If you want more
A good Theory of Change can accommodate all these criticisms! But do all partners want a more flexible (and complicated?) ToC?
In the Theorymaker language, a ToC = someone’s Theory about how to get something they want by influencing something they can control.
A school principal has this Theory …
So this is a Theory of Change:
(Just three Variables in this example. Many other formats possible.)
… either a “simple Theory”:
like this, which shows how one or more “influencing Variables” influence one “consequence Variable” …
… or a composite Theory: two or more simple Theories “snapped together”.
Here, we added another simple Theory which explains how Output 1 influences Outcome X: